MindExpo Abstracts 2016

Proposal Title: LOOKING THROUGH A MAGNIFIER
Author: Monique Belitz
Additional Authors: Lizzy Sarnes, Caitlyn Tritle
Faculty Sponsor: Monique Belitz
Field of study: Art
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Last summer’s research group consisted of myself and two freshmen, Lizzy Sarnes and Caitlyn Tritle.
During the first two weeks, the three of us would meet for four hours in the morning and work on my own pieces. One is called “The Writing on the Wall”, about the ecological dangers facing the Great Plains, and “Legacy” which deals with Native American History in Nebraska. While the students participated in my work in the morning, they spend four hours in the afternoon working on their personal artwork. They mostly used watercolor painting with or without India ink to create pieces dealing with the flora or fauna of Western Nebraska.
During the third week we worked together on a mural at Cedar Point Biological Station outside of Ogallala. Lizzie worked on the painting of a gigantic dragon fly, while I collaged ancient maps of the Great Plains on the wall with the local landscape on top. Caitlyn worked on drawing and painting turtles and yuccas, which were added to the mural. All animals were topics of research conducted at the center. Staff, visiting researchers and UNL students also contributed drawings to the piece, a real expression of art for and by the people spending time at CPBS.
Before we left for home, we framed Lizzie’s and Caitlyn’s work which still hang at the Lake McConaughy Visitor Center. My pieces have been shown at Doane, at my solo show in Frederick, MD, and will be part of an upcoming solo show in Oneonta, NY.       
 
          

 


Biology

Proposal Title: DETECTION OF EXPLOSIVES USING BODIPY DYES
Author: Yasmine Al-Shdifat
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Andrea Holmes
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Literature precedence shows that certain Bodipy dyes can detect explosive substances. Newly synthesized BODIPY dyes were therefore characterized for the detection of explosives such as TNT. TNT was added to various BODIPY dyes and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine if the dyes could serve as sensors. Results indicated that there were no significant fluorescence changes of the dyes in the presence of TNT. Research continues to find more suitable Bodipy sensors.
 
Proposal Title: MEASURING THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE INBREDS B73 AND MO17 IN A NEWLY ESTABLISHED OUTDOOR CORN PLOT AFTER COLD STRESS
Author: terra Hartman
Additional Authors: Callie Vickers, Tessa Durham Brooks
Faculty Sponsor: Tessa Durham Brooks
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Farmers have begun planting their corn crop earlier. There are a few reasons for this, including the need to plant more acres and therefore get an earlier start, and avoiding the late summer heat and water stress. However, earlier planting comes with the risk of the plants being exposed to cold temperatures during the earliest stages of development. Intermated B73 and Mo17 lines can be used to identify genetic loci conferring responses to cold stress, but in order to effectively do this, a cold condition that elicits the biggest difference in response between B73 and Mo17 should be identified. The goal of this study was to determine which cold stress condition delivered within the first week of seedling development would cause the biggest difference in adult growth between B73 and Mo17. An outdoor field site was established to grow the corn to maturity in a realistic environment. The site was sprayed, tilled, and fertilized in preparation for planting. Cold stress at 10°C or 4°C was delivered at either imbibition, germination, one day after germination, or three days after germination. Seedlings were grown on agar for three days. They were then transplanted to soil, hardened in a greenhouse, and transplanted to the outdoor field. Height measurements were taken until the plants tasseled. Whole, mature plants were removed for later dry mass measurement and the roots were imaged and analyzed using the DIRT computational pipeline. Cold stress delivered early in development was found to negatively impact growth observed in adult development.
 
Proposal Title: DIETARY TRENDS IN WHITE-TAILED DEER AS BREEDING SEASON APPROACHES
Author: Zachary Kaster
Additional Authors: Dr. Ramesh Laungani, Dr. Russ Souchek
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Ramesh Laungani
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Noticing dietary shifts in animals could change the way that we manage them by being able to plant more preferred food types in order to boost species population. To do this, we studied White-Tailed deer to see if there was a dietary shift as the breeding season approaches. Breeding period for White-Tailed deer generally begins in the middle of October and ends after November. Understanding dietary preferences leading up to breeding will help hunting guides make more money as they have more success on their guided hunts. My hypothesis is that as the breeding season approaches, there will be a dietary shift from soybeans to corn, which indicates they are eating food with more carbohydrates for energy. In order to test this hypothesis, we counted the number of visits by deer via trail camera to a set of two buckets with either soybeans or corn. A second dataset examined carbon-13 isotope signature of fecal samples from three different areas (bean field, corn field, and site with buckets). The fecal results did not support the notion of a dietary shift over the breeding season; however, these data may have been skewed by consumption of surrounding vegetation. The bucket results supported the hypothesis that there is a dietary shift from beans to corn as the breeding season approaches. The overall results leaned towards a trend in a dietary shift for White-Tailed deer suggesting that as the breeding season approaches, they will shift their diet to corn.
 
Proposal Title: BELOWGROUND RESOURCES HAVE THE BIGGEST IMPACT ON JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ESTABLISHMENT IN THE ABSENCE OF COMPETITION
Author: Colin Lauenroth
Additional Authors: Dr. Ramesh Laungani
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Ramesh Laungani
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Native grasslands are in danger of being controlled by invasive species. Bromus inermis is an aggressive perennial grass, and Juniperus virginiana, an invasive woody plant species, are coming to dominate natural grasslands in the US. The goal of this study was to determine how these two invasive species compete for resources, either aboveground (Light), or belowground (Nitrogen). Three experiments were conducted to examine the role of resource availability and competition on the establishment of J. virginiana. J. virginiana was planted in established communities of B. inermis of low and high density. Half of these established pots had B. inermis stems pulled back allowing J. virginiana to only have soil competition occurring. We found that the competition for above ground resources was not as important as competition for belowground resources. We then examined how changes in nitrogen (N) availability impacted J. virginiana growth. B. inermis litter, which can decrease soil N levels when added to soil, was added to half of the test pots with two densities of B. inermis competition.The results from this experiment showed that B. inermis litter had the biggest impact on J. virginiana establishment in the pots with no competition. In the absence of competition, we found a significant difference in J. virginiana growth between low concentrations of plant litter compared to higher concentrations. Based on the results from these three experiments, we have a better understanding of how J. virginiana competes for resources in environment occupied by B. inermis.
 
Proposal Title: DETECTING CHANGES IN MAIZE ROOT EXUDATE COMPOSITION AFTER COLD STRESS USING NMR AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS
Author: Qing Li
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Tessa Durham Brooks
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Early spring planting is one way for farmers to extend the growing season and increase yield of maize. However, the current commercial maize varieties are still relatively cold sensitive, which makes it necessary to identify genetic loci that would increase cold tolerance. Root exudates are appreciated for their role in mediating below-ground communication and have particular importance in protective responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Researchers have demonstrated that plant root exudates such as proline play a crucial role in mediating abiotic stress. Tracking changes in root exudate composition and quantity could be an important way to measure seedlings’ response to cold. Maize has a long breeding history and the species has been adapted for cultivation across a wide range of latitudes. This genetic diversity has been used to create mapping populations, such as the Intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) lines. The IBM population has been used in other research to identify genetic loci conferring desirable cold stress responses, often by using gross measurements of above-ground tissue such as shoot height. Measurement of below-ground phenotypes including root exudate composition becomes important due to the necessary role plant root exudates play in protecting plants from abiotic stress. This study aims to detect changes in root exudate profiles collected from maize seedlings after eight cold stress conditions. B73 and Mo17 seedlings were given cold stress for 24 hours at 4°C or 10°C during imbibition, germination, one day after germination or three days after germination. 1H-NMR was used to collect spectra of root exudates, spectra were processed and binned, and Principal Components Analysis was used to detect profile differences based on cold treatment conditions and genotype.
 
Proposal Title: USING WET-BULB GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TO DETEMINE HEAT EXPERIENCED BY WILD LAND FIRE FIGHTERS
Author: Bryce Rolenc
Additional Authors: Dr. Brad Elder
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Brad Elder
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: The Thermal Work Limit (TWL) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) are measurements used to determine how long workers can work in a heat stressed environment. Currently, wild land fire fighters do not have safety guidelines on how long they can work on a fire line. The lack of safety guidelines is due to various jobs on the fire line with firefighters being exposed to different amounts of heat from the fire. The goal of the experiment was to measure the heat experienced by fire fighters during a wild land fire using the Wet-Bulb Global Temperature (WBGT). A Kestrel 4400 meter measured the WBGT at distances between 5-15 feet away from a controlled burn. The results showed that the fire added 30 degrees Fahrenheit of radiant heat under certain conditions. It was concluded that in order to improve fire fighters’ safety, the work/rest ratio could be as high as 15 minutes of work to 45 minutes of rest per hour.
 
Proposal Title: GROWTH SUPPRESSIVE EFFECTS OF INHIBITORS OF STAT3/SYK/BRAF ON CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA: SUPERIOR EFFICACY OF STAT3 INHIBITOR
Author: Melissa Shadoin
Additional Authors: Ashima Shukla, Dr. Joshi, Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy Department, University of Nebraska Medical Center
Faculty Sponsor: Barb Clement
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the western hemisphere, with approximately 10,000 new cases every year in the United States. It is an indolent B cell malignancy that is characterized by CD19+CD5+CD23+ cells accumulated in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. CLL patients have small actively proliferating populations of mutant B cells in bone marrow and lymph nodes, providing a tumor microenvironment that stimulates cell survival and proliferation and activates several aberrant pathways in the CLL cells. Three pathways, STAT3, Syk, and MAPK, are important to survival of CLL cells. Three peptide inhibitors have been identified, one interfering with each pathway. Primary CLL cells obtained from CLL patients and the Mec-1 CLL cell line were each treated with four increasing doses of pathway-specific inhibitor for 24 and 48 hours. Cell integrity and viability of CLL or Mec-1 cells were assessed using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) and Annexin V staining. STAT3 inhibitor consistently produced the greatest decrease in cell viability for both Mec-1 and primary CLL cells in 24 and 48 hours. Syk and Braf (MAPK pathway) inhibitors provoked a more pronounced decrease in cell viability at 48 hours compared to 24 hours. Inhibition of individual pathways in Mec-1 showed that inhibition of STAT3 resulted in 93% apoptosis while inhibition of Syk and Braf resulted in 32% and 29% apoptosis, respectively. When STAT3 and Syk inhibitors were combined and used to treat cells, there was an increase in apoptosis to 94%. When STAT3 and Braf were combined and used to treat Mec-1 cells, there was a resulting increase in apoptosis to 68%. While all three inhibitors produced a decrease in cell viability, STAT3 exhibited the highest efficacy.
 
Proposal Title: IMPACT OF AGKISTRODON PISCIVOROUS VENOM ON TUMOR GROWTH IN HELIANTHUS GIGANTEUM
Author: Nik Stevenson
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Ramesh Laungani
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Cancer is a universal issue that affects not only humans, but other life forms as well. Every day pharmaceutical companies are looking to further advance and better the currently available treatment options. The battle against cancer can be viewed in three different fronts in terms of treatment: prevention of tumor formation, limiting tumor growth, and/or eradication of the cancer. My research focused on the second of these categories, limiting tumor growth. Agrobacterium tumefacians was used to induce rapid cellular proliferation, causing a gall or plant tumor in Helianthus giganteum. The sunflower was chosen as the study system for tumor growth because of the ease in which A. tumefacians caused gall formation. Snake venom from Agkistrodon piscivorous was used to limit tumor growth through an injection method into the tumor. We hypothesize that exposing plants to venom from A. piscivorous will slow the growth of tumors. Therefore, we compared plant tumor growth with and without snake venom. We measured: 1) area of the tumor, 2) percent change in height of the plant, and 3) secondary tumor formation on the plant. Findings hope to point to a potential new source of medicine in the fight against cancer. Snake venom could potentially hold promise for the future in not only limiting tumor growth, but stopping it completely.
 
Proposal Title: EXPRESSION OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA SMALL PROTEASE IS INDEPENDENT OF CONTACT LENS MATERIAL
Author: Carling Bloedorn
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Barb Clement
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Microbial keratitis, a corneal infection of the eye, is most commonly associated with colonization of the eye by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with contact lens use. A recently characterized protein, called the PASP protease (Pseudomonas aeruginosa small protease), is a product of P. aeruginosa and appears to be a virulence factor involved in initiating and maintaining this infection. Previous research supports that risk of developing keratitis varies based on the type of contact lens used. This research focuses on the effect of different contact lens materials on growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and expression of the PASP protease. The medium from stationary phase cultures of P. aeruginosa, with or without cell lysis product, was used as the source of the PASP protein. Expression of PASP was detected using a Western blot procedure, which uses gel electrophoresis to first separate proteins by size. Transfer to a membrane then allows further identification and quantification using antibodies against the protein of interest. Total protein complement of P. aeruginosa was visualized using a Ponceau S detection dye. PASP protein was identified from the total protein pool by specific binding of polyclonal anti-PASP IgG antibody (raised in New Zealand White rabbits) and using an alkaline phosphatase detection system. No difference in PASP production by P. aeruginosa related to different lens material was observed. We conclude that there is not enough evidence to support the hypothesis that the type of lens material contributes to growth of P. aeruginosa and subsequent expression of the PASP protease.
 
Proposal Title: OXYGEN LEVELS LOW ENOUGH TO STALL AN ENGINE DETECTED NEAR ACTIVE WILDLAND FIRES
Author: Tyler Brandt
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Brad Elder
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: On occasion fire trucks have stalled while crossing active fire lines during wildfires. The two prevailing hypothesis are that vehicles are stalling due to poor maintenance or insufficient oxygen levels. Based off previous observations and other studies, our primary theory was that the trucks were stalling due to the engines not having sufficient oxygen. Sampling bonfires (2 meters wide and 1 meter tall) resulted in oxygen levels that got as low as 8.8%. Oxygen levels as low as 18.6% were also found on backfires in wildland grass fires (with wind speeds from 5 to 15 mph, flame heights averaging 1.1 meters and sampling occurring within 15 to 30 cm from flame tip). Wildland fires proved to be more difficult to sample due to the varying conditions that affect fire like changing wind speed, humidity, fuel distribution, and the researcher’s ability to withstand the heat from the fire. The results of these tests show that there is a low enough oxygen zone present near bonfires and possibly wildland grass fires to stall a vehicle engine. Wildland fire results varied due to sampling conditions but bonfires showed a direct relationship between distance from the flame tip and amount of oxygen present.
 
Proposal Title: IDENTIFYING GENETIC LOCI ASSOCIATED WITH MORPHOLOGICAL PHENOTYPES FROM MOUSE BRAIN IMAGE DATA AS AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE PROJECT
Author: Tyler Brookshire
Additional Authors: Hunter Creglow, Qing Li, Michael Shavlik, Jessica Swanger
Faculty Sponsor: Erin Doyle
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Despite significant scientific advances that make it relatively easy to sequence an organism’s entire genome, making sense of that information remains a difficult and complex task. Genomics, the study of how an organism’s genetic code is constructed and used, and phenomics, the study of how all of an organism’s functions depend on its genetic makeup and environment, are intimately linked fields. They encompass many subdisciplines, such as bioinformatics, proteomics and metabolomics, statistical genetics, and systems biology. Brought together, these two fields have potential to help scientists revolutionize human health and agriculture by enabling prediction of phenotypes from genotypes. Adequately defining and measuring a process or trait of interest so that significant associations with a population’s genetic variation can be made is a common issue in statistical genetic studies.
Students currently enrolled in Genomes and Phenomes at Doane University have been exploring these fields through investigations of primary literature and a course research project linking genetic loci to measured phenotypes. Students used ImageJ to measure two morphological features from mouse brain images. R/qtl was used to perform QTL analysis, resulting in identification of genome regions correlated with the measured phenotypes. Students combined data from the UCSC Genome Browser, NCBI, and other online databases to narrow their lists of candidate genes within each QTL identified to those with the strongest evidence of being causally linked to the measured phenotype. Students will report on their progress, as well as their experiences in the course.
 
Proposal Title: INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF 8°C TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION ON ALGAL OXYGEN OUTPUTS THAT RESULT FROM PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Author: Tyler Brookshire
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Russ Souchek
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Algae produces a large amount of the oxygen that gets breathed in by organisms on land as a side product of photosynthesis. The oxygen produced by algae accounts for at least 75% of the oxygen in the planet’s atmosphere . With this much of the atmosphere’s oxygen coming from algae, if the production rate of oxygen was slowed, it could potentially add up over times and have a negative impact on our environment.
Studies have been performed on factors that effect algae function (such as climate change and storms), but all in coastal locations and areas that have fairly consistent and predictable weather throughout the year. What has not been tested is the effect of natural temperature fluctuations in a landlocked environment, for example near the end of a dry winter in Nebraska.
The question this experiment is looking to answer is what kind of effect does temperature fluctuation in a Nebraskan winter have on the rate of photosynthesis in algae; and can algae can return to “normal” oxygen production after temperature fluctuations? This question was explored by using both a hot plate and a refrigerator to fluctuate the temperature the algae experienced. Algae oxygen was measured by counting the number of oxygen bubbles produced. Results suggest that it can return to it’s “normal” oxygen production at room temperature, based on the test conditions. Presented will be a more intensive background, procedure, and results (with interpretation)
 
Proposal Title: CORAL SPAWNING INDUCTION IN GREEN STAR POLYP CORAL USING ESTRADIOL
Author: Jonas Christensen
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor:
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Coral reefs are in danger of becoming extinct due to their diminishing environment and reproductive strains. Coral spawn by releasing gametes into the water column. During this process, different hormones are present in the water just prior to spawning events and this is believed to be a indicator to other coral to release their gametes at the same time. The problem with coral spawning is the event only happens annually or biannually at most. This experiment was designed to induce spawning by introducing the correct chemical signal in the water column. Estradiol was introduced to the water column in which Pachyclavularia sp. coral was growing. The hormone estradiol was used because of the prevalence of estradiol in the water prior to spawning events in the natural environment. No response to estradiol being present in the water column was detected and the coral showed no signs of gamete production.
 
Proposal Title: INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR AND SOCIAL PROCESSES IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
Author: Hunter Creglow
Additional Authors: Dr. Anastasia Kyvelidou, Jordan Wickstrom
Faculty Sponsor: Sharmin Sikich
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex brain development disorder that is often characterized by decreased social interaction and development. The earliest that ASD can be diagnosed, currently is 2 years of age. The goal of this project and all the projects of the Motor Development Lab at the University of Nebraska-Omaha Biomechanics Center is to develop techniques to diagnose ASD at an earlier age. This project’s approach to earlier diagnosis is through the investigation motor and social interactions of individuals with ASD. Earlier research performed by the Motor Development Lab has seen that individuals with ASD have a preference of viewing geometric images when presented with both social dynamic images and geometric images. During this project, the preference to viewing geometric images was further investigated. Subjects were run through trials that involved viewing both geometric and social dynamic images while wearing an fNIRS cap and either sitting or standing on a force plate. The fNIRS cap measured what regions of the subject’s brain were being activated by both sets of images. Meanwhile, the force plate was used to measure the patient’s postural control. The goal of this project was to see if there is a specific type of brain activation and postural control that is specific to individuals with ASD. If any such pattern was found, this procedure is to be modified into a test that can be performed on children under the age of 2 to diagnose ASD.
 
Proposal Title: DESIGNING CURRICULUM TO INCORPORATE EXPLORATION OF ROOT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS IN A STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Author: Chelsie Detimore
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Tessa Durham Brooks
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Science is a rapidly changing discipline with many advances that are made every day. Given this, the methods which are used to teach science need to accommodate. It is a continuous challenge to transform traditional lecture-based, hands off styles of teaching to keep pace with what is known about how students learn. Visions for changes in science education has been advocating for a more hands on approach. Recently, new Biology courses such as Bio 110 at Doane University are addressing this by converting the classroom to a student-centered learning environment. By designing a ten hour science summer camp module for Camp Summergold and visiting Bio 110 courses, I was able to design laboratory activities and create a syllabus for an upcoming course. In this course, students will investigate questions regarding the interaction of microbial communities and root exudates of maize seedlings. Through this process microbial culturing, plant culturing, and media prep was initially done. From camp, a lab manual and lesson plan was established which was modified and further developed to be appropriate for incoming freshman students. Lab work for the development of a standard curve for the colorimetric analysis of amino acid content was completed, while an Benedict’s test for sugar content is still in progress. By investigating this question, students will learn how to create hypotheses, use critical thinking, interpret data, and formulate conclusions as well as communicate these results, no matter their major or discipline.
 
Proposal Title: INSULIN AFFECTS BIOFILM FORMATION BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
Author: Jessica Esparza
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Barb Clement
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Diabetes is one of the most significant chronic healthcare problems in the United States. Diabetes falls into two categories, Type 1 or ”juvenile onset” diabetes and Type 2 or “adult onset” diabetes. Early onset diabetes is usually treated with supplemental insulin. Recently, it has been noted that bacterial infections in diabetics treated with insulin are characterized by more biofilm growth compared to infections occurring in non-diabetics, and thus are more difficult to treat. This research focuses primarily on the effect of insulin on biofilm formation in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilm formation in the presence or absence of insulin was investigated using the 96 well plate method and two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PA01 and PA14. P. aeruginosa was grown overnight in 25 mL of FAB media and diluted to absorbance 0.02. Aliquots of cells and media or insulin dilution were plated and incubated overnight at 37 C. The crystal violet assay and spectrophotometry were used to determine absorbance in wells, an indirect measure of the amount of biofilm formed. All treatments were carried out in replicate sets of 8 wells per treatment. Significance was determined by T test. Trials indicate that insulin increases biofilm formation in PA01 but decreases it in PA14. The reason for the difference in response of the strains to the presence of insulin is unclear. PA01 is an environmental isolate, while PA14 is a clinical isolate, although the origin of the isolates may or may not affect the in vitro biofilm response.
 
Proposal Title: THE EFFECTS OF SALINITY, LIGHT INTENSITY, AND TEMPERATURE ON LITTORINA LITTOREA SNAILS
Author: Michelle Hachtel
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Russ Souchek
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Gastropod Littorina littorea snails are invertebrates with an exoskeleton that live near the water specifically, along shores of the sea, docks, and piers positioned in water for extended amounts of time. The snails use the tide and vegetation for survival and behavioral patterns. Littorina littorea adjust to the level of tide by climbing on plant stalks attached to the underwater surface and ascend to the water surface. The snails use four functioning states including active crawling on a plant stalks, immobile attachment, withdrawal into the shell, and entanglement with grasses of the sea.The typical range of temperature of the water that causes Littorina snails to climb is 30-40 degrees Celsius and the average salinity the snails live in is 15ppt. This study is very important to our surrounding environment and will investigate Littorina snail adaptation to the new environmental conditions. To go about this experiment I constructed an actual model, in a 20 gallon tank, to test the snail’s behavior when put into specific environmental changes. By creating this model it allowed me to watch the snails, collect data with a Vernier LabPro Light Sensor, and analyze into graphs. It is clear from the data collected throughout the experiment and the graphs that a change in salinity and light intensity affects the climbing behavior of the snails. There is a large difference between the climbing behavior between an average light intensity of 16.12 (lux) and an average light intensity of 734.86 lux.
 
Proposal Title: USING GENE ONTOLOGY TO FIND ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GENES THAT ARE UPREGULATED BY MATERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT
Author: Jenna Kleeman
Additional Authors: Tessa Durham Brooks
Faculty Sponsor: Tessa Durham Brooks
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Plasticity of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied to determine gene interactions and upregulation in environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity is the capability of an organism to change its function, through changes in gene expression and accessibility, in response to environmental factors. Understanding the interactions between genes and the environment will contribute to the knowledge of functionality of genes in many organisms that are similar to A. thaliana. In a previous experiment, genetically identical seeds of different sizes were taken, large and tiny, and grown for 2 or 3 days. Tissue samples were extracted from the roots followed by RNA sequencing to determine gene expression levels in each condition. It was found that different sets of genes were upregulated between conditions (two and three day old seeds, large and tiny seeds). Gene ontology is a standardized system to classify genes based off of their functions and interactions. Online gene ontology tools determined interactions between the upregulated genes, by seed size and seedling age, and how the genes contributed to the function of A. thaliana during growth conditions. Gene categories were found that were significantly enriched based on biological processes and previously published gene networks implicated in expression changes for both seed size and seedling age were determined. Further research will identify additional interactions and contribute to the understanding of gene interactions with the environment and with other genes.
 
Proposal Title: P. AERUGINOSA BIOFILM FORMATION THROUGH SADC AND GAC NETWORK INTERLINKAGE
Author: Tyler Kulawik
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Sharmin Sikich
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: When referring to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, there are many pathways that are used by these bacteria to create biofilms. The GAC network has been researched, especially with its involvement with the cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathways. This network involves sensor kinases (GacS, LadS) that act as signal proteins which can be phosphorylated to promote gene expression for biofilm formation. They interact GacA, a regulatory protein, which binds with RNA molecules, Rsmz and Rsmy. Once these RNA molecules bind to the regulatory protein they target genes associated with biofilm, but halt motility and swarming. If the RNA molecules are not bound to the regulatory protein then swarming and motility of the bacteria occurs. When these RNA molecules bind to RsmA, which is a transcriptional repressor, meaning it inhibits transcription of nearby genes involved in biofilm formation. RetS is another signal kinase involved in this pathway which represses this gene expression by binding with GacS and forming a heterodimer. This heterodimer inhibits the GacS to be phosphorylated which does not allow for the regulatory protein to bind to the target genes through the RNA, negatively impacting biofilm formation. SadC, which is a guanylate cyclase is also involved. Cyclases cyclizes GTP to cyclic GMP, which are both secondary messengers. SadC is responsible for creating cyclic-di-GMP. SadC protein levels are controlled tightly by RsmA. When the amount of cyclic-di-GMP increases, biofilm formation occurs by inhibiting cell motility and swarming ability, while signaling for the creation of more extra-polymeric substance that builds the network for the biofilms.
 
Proposal Title: CREATING A PLASMID TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF CHCHD3 PROTEIN ON BREAST CANCER CELLS
Author: Sara Lennemann
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Sharmin Sikich
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: ChChd3 protein is a protein of unknown function that is found in the mitochondria that may play a role in mitochondria structure. The goal of this project is to make a new DNA plasmid that allows us to create a stable-transfected cancer cell line that is over-expressing ChChd3. To do this we designed primers with new restriction enzyme sites that correspond to sites on the new plasmid. Then, the DNA sequence for ChChd3 was amplified using new primers and PCR. Digested PCR product and the new vector were ligated together. Next, these plasmids were transformed into bacterial cells and plated on ampicillin plates so those bacteria who did take up the plasmids could be selected for. Ultimately, we want to explore the function of this protein and how it may affect breast cancer cells after it is over-expressed and then treated with the anti-cancer drug Adriamycin.
 
Proposal Title: EFFECTS OF THE SELECTIVE HERBICIDE, TRICLOPYR, ON BROME GRASS
Author: Allie McConville
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Brad Elder
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Yucca glauca Nott (or more commonly known as small soapweed) is an invasive woody species that is a hindrance in pastureland throughout western Nebraska and other semi-arid climates, as most livestock in these areas will avoid this plant. This avoidance allows the plant to invade the grasslands and take away nutrients from the grasses that are utilized by livestock. Triclopyr, a selective herbicide for woody species, such as the Y. glauca plant, is used to control this invasive species. Triclopyr imitates a plant hormone called indoleacetic acid which is responsible for plant growth. When this is administered to the woody plants, such as Y. glauca, it causes uncontrolled and disorganized plant growth by acidifying and loosening cell walls causing cells to expand without normal control, ultimately resulting in plant death. It is selective because grasses are quickly able to transform Triclopyr into compounds that do not have hormonal activity. However, often farmers apply Triclopyr in concentrations well above full strength. The effect of high concentrations of Triclopyr is unknown on grasses. In order to test the effect of higher concentrations of Triclopyr (31.25/500mL H20 normal), brome grass was grown for ten days and then low (31.25mL/500 mL H20), medium (62.5mL/500mL H20), and high (125mL/500mL H20) concentrations of Triclopyr were sprayed on each group of 10 plants. Height, as well as above and below ground mass measurements were taken. Results are in the process of being collected and analyzed and will be presented at Mind Expo.
 
Proposal Title: DETERMINING SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE EBE VARIATION ACROSS 3,000 SEQUENCED RICE GENOMES
Author: Michael Shavlik
Additional Authors: Blake Kostal, Dalton Bichlmeier, Dr. Erin Doyle
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Erin Doyle
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Rice is a staple food crop for much of the world’s population. It is estimated that rice production must increase 25% or more by 2030 to feed the predicted world population of 9 billion people. Recently, researchers sequenced genomes of 3,000 different rice lines in an attempt to characterize the genetic diversity found in rice. This data will allow researchers to identify genetic loci associated with beneficial traits, such as disease resistance, that could be genetically engineered to increase rice production. The rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae uses transcription activator-like (TAL) effector proteins to manipulate the host plant’s gene expression in specific ways that make the plant vulnerable to disease. TAL effectors accomplish this through the activation of disease susceptibility (S) genes in the host plant. Each TAL effector finds and activates its S gene target by binding to a specific Effector Binding Element (EBE) in the gene promoter. We created a custom Python script to analyze EBE sequences across all 3,000 sequenced rice genomes to quantify the amount of variation and to identify novel alleles that may be useful for engineering improved disease resistance. Comparison of variation in S-gene and non-S-gene promoters may also provide evidence for selection at EBE loci. We will report on our progress towards quantifying EBE variation, and comparing variation between classes of EBEs and across gene promoters.
 
Proposal Title: TOBACCO HAS A MIXED EFFECT ON CHERAX QUADRICARINATUS
Author: Breanna Stevens
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Brad Elder
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Discarded cigarette filters are composed of numerous chemicals, including glycerol triacetate, titanium dioxide and numerous carcinogens. These filters are often disposed of onto beaches, sidewalks, streets and parks where they can account for as much as 30% of total litter by count in the United States. Not only are they unattractive to the environment, but they pose threats to domestic animals, wildlife and aquatic organisms (Slaughter & Gersberg, 2011 - Novotny & Hardin et al, 2011). In order to widen the understanding of how harmful these chemicals are to aquatic organisms, groups of C. quadricarinatus were exposed to different contaminant levels (1.5 cigarette filters/22.71 Liters, 0.75 cigarette filters/22.71 Liters, 0.37 cigarette filters/22.71 Liters) in order to examine the effect on growth rates. We found a significant difference in abdomen and claw lengths between treatments but not in weight and post orbital carapace length. This has implications for waterways, like Antelope creek.
 
Proposal Title: INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BIOFILM GROWTH ON ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA ROOTS BETWEEN INFECTIONS OF STRAINS PA01 & PA14 BACTERIA
Author: Jessica Swanger
Additional Authors: Tessa Durham Brooks
Faculty Sponsor: Tessa Durham Brooks
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Biofilms are prokaryotic, multicellular groups of microorganisms where cells combine with each other and stick onto many different living and nonliving surfaces. Microbes form biofilms as a response to different factors, and can be found in normal and extreme environments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative, free-living bacterium that is usually found in soil and water and is a plant, and occasionally, an animal pathogen. P. aeruginosa is most often found in the biofilm state and habitually lives upon the surface of plants. Plants have been said to be able to mimic responses to bacterial and biofilm growth infections similar to what is found in humans. With this in mind, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a multicellular model to investigate biofilm growth changes by inoculations of different clinical strains of the same family of bacteria. Arabidopsis roots were inoculated with P. aeruginosa strains 01 (PA01) and 14 (PA14) and growth was monitored over a period of four days using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Growth rates and biofilm surface features were measured using ImageJ. This investigation will add detail to our understanding of subtle genetic effects on biofilm growth.
 
Proposal Title: PURIFICATION OF CHCHD3 PROTEIN TO UNDERSTAND THE EFFECTS ON METAL BINDING
Author: Alex Thatch
Additional Authors: Megan Perry, Sharmin Sikich
Faculty Sponsor: Sharmin Sikich
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: ChChd3, also known as Coiled-coil helix coiled- coil helix domain- containing protein 3, is a mitochondrial protein that is believed to be involved in oxidation reduction pathways. It carries out its role in mitochondrial cristae formation, possibly located on the inner membrane facing the intermembrane space. The domain of the protein that we are using in this experiment comes from research done earlier by Megan Perry. She engineered a DNA construct fusing GST (glutathione s- transferase) to the ChCh domain of ChChd3. We are continuing work with this construct to purify the GST- ChCh protein. Additionally, we are creating a second construct by amplifying the entire ChChd3 sequence from the pCMV vector using two primers that we constructed. We will then ligate it into the pGEX vector for bacterial translation and through Glutathione S-transferase (GST) purification get a purified protein. We are hoping to have the complete ChChd3 protein sequence after purification, to compare to the truncated version. This protein construct that we created through the pGEX-ChChd3 vector will hopefully help us in future research and studying of the effects of metal binding.
 
Proposal Title: BIOFILM PATHWAY
Author: Steven Wilson
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Sharmin Sikich
Field of study: Biology
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: In biofilms made from Pseudomonas aeruginosa there are two biosynthetic pathways that create the biofilm. The pel and psl operons code for their respective proteins that lead to extracellular polysaccharides. The Pel biosynthesis starts with the regulation of PelD binding with c-di-GMP. “It is unknown how or why PelD regulates the production of the rest of the Pel proteins, but once PelD binds to c-di-GMP the production of PelE starts” (Franklin, et. al. 2011). PelE is simply the first of two scaffolding proteins in the Pel complex. The second scaffolding protein is PelB, which also secretes the extracellular polysaccharides along with PelC. Psl biosynthesis is functionally similar to “the isoprenoid lipid-base biosynthesis in E. coli” (Franklin, et. al. 2011). “There are four enzymes (PslF, PslH, PslI, and PslC) that transfer precursor sugars (GDP-mannose, UDP-glucose and dTDP-rhammose) from nucleotide donors to the repeating units of Psl polysaccharides” (Franklin, et. al. 2011). The membrane-associated Psl complexes (PslA, PslE, PslJ, PslK, and PslL) recognize these polysaccharides and start the protein scaffolding. PslE leads to the extracellular polysaccharide secretion protein, PslD.
 
        
Proposal Title: HUMAN TRAFFICKING DURING THE FIFA WORLD CUP
Author: Luis Castaneda
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Bossard
Field of study: Business
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: The World Cup is the most important competition in the soccer environment. As with other large sporting events, human trafficking is a serious problem, and The World Cup is no exception. The purpose of this research is to learn more about human trafficking in the host countries of the World Cup from 2002 to 2014. One of the primary resources used in this research is the Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report), issued annually by the US Department of State. This report provides information about human trafficking for almost every country, including if there had been an increase or a decrease over the course of the year and if any measures were taken in order to prevent human trafficking. For this research, I used the TIP Report for each host country for the year prior to The World Cup, the year of the World Cup, and the year after the World Cup. In addition, this research contains information from news articles for each country about human trafficking before, during, and after each competition.
 
Proposal Title: ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF CONCUSSIONS IN FOOTBALL ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Author: Colten Mach
Additional Authors: Dalton Aksamit
Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Bossard
Field of study: Business
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Any students attend college with plans of playing sports at the collegiate level. Student athletes know that in any contact sports there is a chance of injury. In football, there is a growing concern about concussions and how they affect an athlete on an athletic level, as well as an academic level. Students in college are concerned with their grades; after all, without decent grades they may not be able to play collegiate football. This study explores the relationship between concussions and academic performance. The main question in this study is, does the number of concussions, either diagnosed or undiagnosed, affect a football player’s GPA? Our hypothesis is that the number of concussions negatively affects an athlete's academic performance. We test this hypothesis using primary data collected from a survey administered to 53 student-athletes on the Doane University Football Team in February of 2016.
 
          
Proposal Title: PROGRESS TOWARDS A UNIVERSAL CHEMICAL DETECTOR FOR THE DETECTION FARNESOL: COLORIMETRIC SENSOR ARRAY FOR THE POSITIVE IDENTIFICA
Author: Rachel Lukowicz
Additional Authors: Michael Kangas, Jordyn Atwater, Raychelle Burks and Andrea E. Holmes
Faculty Sponsor: Andrea Holmes
Field of study: Chemistry
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Colorimetric spot tests usually contain one sensor and are easy and inexpensive tests to identify unknown chemicals. The limitation of colorimetric spot tests is the lack of specificity. We have developed a colorimetric chemical array that utilizes 8 different sensors to uniquely identify analytes, with very few false positives or negatives. The technology is able to discriminate between organic acids and bases and determine their concentrations. Thus far, a broad range of analytes, including pesticides, steroids, narcotics and explosives could be detected. Images of the arrays are taken with a scanner, digital camera, or smartphone. Red green blue (RGB) values are analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbor analysis (KNN). Concentrations of organic acid and bases have been correctly identified with >80% accuracy using this method.
One particular analyte of interest is farnesol, an important auto-inducer and quorum-sensing molecule that is released during yeast infections from the fungus Candida albicans. Quorum sensing molecules are extracellular chemicals released in order to communicate and mediate with other fungi and bacteria to determine the surrounding cell density. Farnesol has the ability to shift the morphology of the yeast into actively budding yeast, which contributes to the yeast’s ability to infect a site. Currently, the only way to analyze farnesol is by using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. It’s estimated that approximately 46,000 cases of healthcare-associated invasive candidiasis occur each year in the US. Because of the prevalence of these serious infections from Candida, there is a pressing need to positively and efficiently identify farnesol. If our colorimetric arrays would be able to detect and quantify farnesol, then biomedical researchers and physicians could quickly diagnose Candida infections. Progress towards this effort will be presented.
 
Proposal Title: QUORUM SIGNALING IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA CAUSES BIOFILM FORMATION
Author: Josh Forrest
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Shamrin Sikich
Field of study: Chemistry
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic organism that relies on a signaling pathway called quorum sensing. This pathway allows the organism to form biofilms along different surfaces. The quorum sensing pathway is able to do this by controlling gene transcription in the bacteria cell. In order to perform this task, individual cells in the planktonic state release molecules called autoinducers. The autoinducers in pseudomonas are acylated homoserine lactones and easily pass through the cell membrane of bacteria due to their hydrophobic properties. When there are enough of the autoinducer molecules to bind to Las and Rhl receptors inside the cells, the receptors dimerize and bind to the DNA. Once the receptors are bound to the DNA they act as a promotor for transcription. The LasR pathway alone results in the transcription of over 200 different genes which enhance the virulence of the bacteria in host organisms. The disease causing properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can also be caused by autoinducers causing a harmful reaction in the host cells found in the environment. Many of these different factors together allow Pseudomonas to form multicellular communities aiding in their survival in environments that could have been difficult to withstand on their own.
 
Proposal Title: INKJET PRINTING OF ORGANIC FERROELECTRIC FILMS
Author: Shana Havenridge
Additional Authors: Nick Youssef, Smantha Vogel, Dr. Sharmin Sikich, Dr. Axel Enders
Faculty Sponsor: Sharmin Sikich
Field of study: Chemistry
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Organic materials are cheap and flexible. Ferroelectrics are used in many electronic devices as memory. Cheap, flexible memory devices have innumerable practical applications. Inkjet printing allows for fast, mass quantities to be produced. Using the CD tray allows for inflexible substrates to be used, such as gold on silicon. Wetting the entire surface evenly is essential to a continuous film. After printing on substrates such as Au, Si, and ITO, we can analyze the characteristics using atomic force microscopy (AFM), piezoelectric response force microscopy (PFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our goals include creating organic ferroelectric films using a common inkjet printer. Co- crystallization of two known ferroelectric materials, croconic acid (C5H2O5) and 3-hydroxyphenalenone (3HPLN), was also explored. Our findings suggest that it is indeed possible to print a ferroelectric material, but more research into substrate-compound interaction is needed to create a proper film.
 
Proposal Title: HEAT RETENTION
Author: Alexander Lund
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Sharmin Sikich
Field of study: Chemistry
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: The intent of this project was to measure and compare heat retention of different materials used for warmth. The use of an IR thermometer, internal and external probes were used to measure temperature. This process started with heating a gel heat pad to forty degrees Celsius. This bag was then covered with one of these materials: wool, neoprene, cotton or Gortex. The gel pad was allowed to cool and the temperatures were monitored and documented for one hour, in thirty second increments. The results showed that wool was the least efficient in retaining heat, while neoprene had the highest efficacy in retaining heat.
 
          
Proposal Title: DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHINESE STOCK MARKTET, 2006 TO THE PRESENT
Author: Brenden Fitzpatrick
Additional Authors: Jiachen Cao
Faculty Sponsor: Les Manns
Field of study: Economics
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: In the Chinese stock market, the debate between “capitalism” and “socialism” continues unabated. Currently, the Chinese stock market is conservative and open while, at the same time, creative and learning. Our paper will examine the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) over the last ten years with particular emphasis on decisions made by government and investors leading up to, and following, the crashes of 2008 and 2015. We will demonstrate how both crashes were strongly related to the Chinese government’s intervention. We conclude that over-regulation by the government did not permit the stock market to find its equilibrium. Thus, we propose that limited deregulation of the Shanghai Stock Exchange could help address at least some of the problems currently impacting stock markets in China.
 
Proposal Title: TEN YEARS OF CHINESE BANKING: A RECOMMENDATION FOR CONTINUED GROWTH
Author: Jacqueline Kardell
Additional Authors: Dustin Hageman
Faculty Sponsor: Les Manns
Field of study: Economics
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Over the last 35 years china has experienced extraordinary growth in real GDP, while implementing significant policy reforms. According to the IMF and the World Bank, China averaged 10.42 percent real GDP growth from 1980-2014. In order to achieve such growth, China’s banking sector underwent modifications that challenged China’s centrally planned economy. The reforms of the 1980s created a mixed market economy in which elements of the former planned economy remained and new elements of a free market economy were introduced. While these reforms have allowed China to experience such a long period of growth, China is now in need of another set of reforms to continue this success. Many experts argue that the structure of the financial system is where China must turn its attention to avoid severe downturns and social unrest. Our paper analyzes the state of the Chinese banking sector over the last ten years by investigating the current banking structure, loan availability, and existing restrictions on a more free market approach to banking. We discuss both the strengths and weaknesses of the banking sector in China from 2006 until present. Included in our paper are recommendations for China regarding policies to promote growth of its budding market economy, all while limiting social unrest.
 
Proposal Title: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BENEFITS AND COSTS OF RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION
Author: Spencer Pugh
Additional Authors: Wanying Wei
Faculty Sponsor: Les Manns
Field of study: Economics
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: The renminbi is the official currency of the people’s Republic of China. China would prefer that the renminbi become an international currency like the U.S. dollar and Euro. In order for the renminbi to be used to settle international account balances, the Chinese government would have to allow it to “float”, i.e. letting the international market determine the exchange value of the currency. Allowing the renminbi to float would leave the Chinese economy at the mercy of international markets, something which China is unwilling to do at present. China has been criticized many times in recent history for unfairly manipulating the value of their currency. This has resulted in some distrust of the Chinese government which is a problem moving forward, as an international currency strongly depends on global faith. Our paper will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the renminbi under the current system, as well as the dangers and opportunities that would likely result were the renminbi allowed to float.
 
Proposal Title: TAX INCREMENT FINANCE DISTRICTS IN THE UNITED STATES
Author: Megan Fender
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Megan Fender
Field of study: Economics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Tax Increment Financing (TIF) is a public financing tool that is used by local governments to redevelop areas of blight. A TIF district is typically created when bonds are issued to finance the development of that area. The higher property value from the redevelopment generates tax revenue that is used to pay back the bonds incrementally over time. All states, except for Arizona, allow for TIF districts and most states have them. In 2007, Jennifer Bossard wrote an article overviewing TIF use in the United States. She estimated the number of TIF districts in each state, recorded the year TIF was passed into legislation, and identified the state contact or reference from each state. The purpose of this paper is to update Bossard’s 2007 paper. The paper includes a table with the estimated number of TIF districts in each state, a record of the year TIF was passed into legislation, and identifies the state contact or reference from each state. In addition, there are summary statistics on the estimated number of TIF districts for all the states as well as by region.
 
Proposal Title: EFFECTS ON VIDEO GAME COPIES SOLD
Author: Dustin Hageman
Additional Authors: Rich Black
Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Bossard
Field of study: Economics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Video games are a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to grow. We are wondering what contributes to the sales of video games. This study examines the different variables that may affect the number of copies of video games sold. The sample size consists of 31 video games that were released and sold in the year 2015. The study aims to determine the impact of several variables on sales, including: critic rating, content rating, sequel, and number of consoles sold on with the amount of copies sold.
 
Proposal Title: DETERMINANTS OF DAYS ON MARKET IN THE RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE INDUSTRY
Author: Mark Wallace
Additional Authors: Alex Wells
Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Bossard
Field of study: Economics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: The residential real estate industry brings in over $200 billion dollars of revenue annually and employs approximately 210,000 companies operating in the brokerage and management field all across the United States (Sena 2016) In an industry so large, specific characteristics of a single residential property greatly influence the decision on whether a house is bought. This paper examines the determinants of days on market in the residential real estate industry. Using a sample of 694 properties that were sold in Douglas County, Nebraska during the month of October 2015, we use regression analysis to determine which characteristics predict the length of time that a property sits on the market. In particular, we are interested in the impact of the price of a property on the amount of time it spends on the market. Our hypothesis is that houses with a lower price results in fewer days on market, as they are smaller investments for buyers than houses with a higher price. With this information, buyers can gain a better understanding as to why a property has been on the market for an extended period of time, and sellers can better understand what characteristics of a property lead to a quicker turnover.
 
          

 


English

Proposal Title: A COMPARISON OF RELIGIOUS RHETORIC IN NARRATIVES BY SOUTHERN SLAVES AND SLAVEHOLDERS
Author: Amanda Petersen
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Brad Johnson
Field of study: English
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Religious texts provided justification in the argument both for and against the nineteenth century institution of race slavery. The wide accessibility of the Bible to the American people encouraged diverse interpretations of it. Self-interested textual analysis allowed slaveholders to support their pro-slavery argument by viewing the Bible through a detailed, legalistic lens. Choosing specific biblical texts to use as set precedents and standards, slaveholders argued that slavery was a divine directive. On the other hand, the illiteracy that was common among slaves encouraged an oral story-telling of the same religious texts. Slaves produced narratives that relied on broader religious themes, such as salvation and deliverance, to refute the rhetoric of the slaveholders. Stories of deliverance, such as the exodus of the slaves from Egypt to the Promised Land, were common analogies used in these narratives. The contrasting interpretation of biblical texts allowed religion to be used successfully in the rhetoric of two vastly different social agendas. Samples from slave and slaveholder narratives will provide illustrations of the contrasting perspectives in the biblical approach to slavery in order to highlight the ambiguous nature of textual interpretation.
 
         
Proposal Title: INFORMING THE DOANE AND CRETE COMMUNITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE COMMERCIAL FASHION INDUSTRY
Author: Grace Jacobson
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Russ Souchek
Field of study: Environmental Science
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: The commercial fashion industry has greatly changed in the past three decades, from a local enterprise to a global force, which disproportionately harms the environments and livelihoods of developing nations. This presentation will showcase the various outreach activities done to inform members of the Doane and Crete community of the environmental and social impacts of their purchasing choices. Outreach activities include: A free campus screening of the documentary The True Cost in coordination with Dr. Bossard, information about the environmental costs posted in public places, a temporary art installation in Cassel Theater, a series of activities with The Open Craft Studio in coordination with the Jacy Hewitt of the Doane Art Department, and the production of costumes made with reused and recycled materials for the PYODS That’s Life! Dance project in coordination with Donna Himmel of the Doane Theater Department.
 
Proposal Title: INCREASE IN CORN YIELD USING YIELD 360-Y-DROPS
Author: Reid Baumgartner
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Reid Baumgartner
Field of study: Environmental Science
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: A study based on the method of nitrogen application on corn was taken up to find the increase of yield per acre on food grade corn. The study was done in Southeastern Nebraska at a private location. The method of application was done by using a new product called Yield 360 Y-drops. This new application product applies liquid fertilizer on top of the surface at the base of the corn plant at a variable rate. The study focused on the correlation between the new method of application and the increase in yield. The yield was then found when the corn was harvested.
 
Proposal Title: BLOOD SAMPLING AND ECTOPARASITES COLLECTION OF THE SPERMOPHILUS TRIDECEMLINEATUS
Author: Isaac Beber
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Russ Souchek
Field of study: Environmental Science
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: In this study, thirteen-lined ground squirrels or Spermophilus tridecemlineatus were live trapped during the fall of 2015, and spring of 2016 at the Doane Aldrich Prairie Research Site near Fairmont, Nebraska. Live traps were baited with honey and oats and checked regularly. These small mammals were trapped to gain a better understanding about white and red blood cell counts and their correlation to ectoparasites, like fleas, lice and ticks that are known to inhabit the thirteen-lined ground squirrel. For this reason, a blood sample, as well as ectoparasites collection was taken from each ground squirrel. It is important to try and understand the effects of ectoparasites to white and red blood cell counts because it could lead to health advancements against viruses that are spread to and from S. tridecemlineatus. Of the ground squirrels collected, the cat flea inhabited more than 75%. A relative normal distribution of white blood cells, red blood cells and plasma levels were present indicating a healthy population. With that said, I do believe that further research is needed before proper conclusions and health advancements can be made.
 
Proposal Title: PRAIRIE RODENT IMPACT ON SOIL
Author: Jessica Donnelly
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Russ Souchek
Field of study: Environmental Science
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Determining the impact of rodent waste on soil characteristics seasonally, by using the LaMotte soil testing kit. Characteristics include phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium as well as a comparison of pH levels. Samples were taken from Aldrich Prairie Research Site (Fremont, NE) from three different ecosystems; wetland, prairie, and rodent site. Tests conducted during Fall and Spring show an increase in pH levels after winter and as well as increased levels of nitrogen.
 
Proposal Title: IMPCAT OF TIME AND RAINFALL ON SALT CREEK WATER QUALITY
Author: Lance English
Additional Authors: Dr. Terry Haverkost
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Terry Haverkost
Field of study: Environmental Science
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Nebraska’s waterways are increasingly stressed by our changing climate and the increasing impact of rising human and animal populations. Because Nebraska’s water resources are so important to our daily lives and the economy of our state, it is critical that water quality be monitored. Precipitation is one factor that can cause major changes to stream quality. It has been found that the rise in microbiota that comes with wet weather could lead to health hazards, particularly in urban areas where sewage runoff enters into waterways. Building on the findings of the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality over the last decade, this research project determined the impact of time and rainfall on the water quality of Salt Creek within the borders of Wilderness Park in Lancaster County, Nebraska over the course of the summer of 2015. Water quality testing parameters included: Atrazine, Chloride, Nitrate, Tannin & Lignin, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, and Escherichia coli. Results show that an unusually high rainfall event on July 16th caused many of our tests to deviate from their summer norm. This can be seen in the Escherichia coli results that multiplied 50 times over the previous week. Nitrate, tannin and lignin, and turbidity levels were all at their highest during that sample date. Atrazine levels increased the week after the rain event. These findings indicate that rainfall has a significant impact on the water quality of Salt Creek.
 
Proposal Title: THE SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF FOOD WASTE AT TABITHA NURSING HOME
Author: Makenzie Zima
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Russ Souchek
Field of study: Environmental Science
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: This study was designed to address the prevalent issues of Food Waste in the United States. The project addressed the inevitable need to bring awareness to food waste since it is the third largest waste stream in the United States by expressing the economic, social, and environmental concerns caused by wasted food. The idea was to identify and bring awareness to major food waste streams in a bigger communal industry, in this case a nursing home. The study ran for 2 days during the spring semester of 2016. Food Waste was collected in separate categories and weighed in order to identify the biggest waste stream. A directed survey was conducted in order to get a general interpretation of food waste at the nursing home. The nursing home was provided with a third party perspective in order to identify food waste reduction areas in their facilities. A benefit of the study was that participants became equipped with information to limit their food waste streams which will benefit them financially, help change the social norm of consumerism waste, and contribute to limiting the environmental effects caused by food waste.
 
 
 
Proposal Title: DOANE AND GLOBALIZATION
Author: Jordyn Atwater
Additional Authors: Carling Bloedorn, Joseph Couch, lance English, Nolan Field, Mahalia Hilts, Amy Hung, Cassandra Kennedy, Alli McConville, Amanda Petersen, Jessica Swanger, Jaycie Sward, Andrew Vinton, Delta Wilson
Faculty Sponsor: Russ Souchek
Field of study: Honors
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: As Doane reaches out to the global community, and particularly as it increases its intellectual investment in China and the Far East, internal policies will need to change to accommodate the new students and the new curriculum. This study examines the current status quo and the challenges Doane may face in the coming 5-10 years. It concludes with a number of specific recommendations for how to meet those challenges.
 
         
Proposal Title: WIRELESS ACCESS POINTS AND DOANE UNIVERSITY
Author: Nick Cepure
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Alec Engebretson
Field of study: Information Science & Technology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: I chose a senior project that would increase my knowledge and skills in computer networking. In my presentation I will discuss two components of my project which allowed me to do this. The first component of my project involved using tools to analyze the wireless network in Haddix and create a proposal on where to place access points in order to make it better. In my presentation, I will discuss what a wireless access point, how Doane uses wireless access points, my analysis, and my proposal. The second component of my project involved identifying an appropriate industry certification and then studying for and completing the certification exam. In my presentation I will discuss what certification is, the pros and cons of certification, the exam I chose and why, and the study techniques I used in preparation for the exam.
 
Proposal Title: DISTANCE TRACKING MOBILE APPLICAITON
Author: Christian Iannone
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Alec Engebretson
Field of study: Information Science & Technology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: For my senior project, I created a mobile application that converts the units of measurement of distance measured by the phone’s GPS. The idea for the application came as a result of my training as a student-athlete at Doane and needing the ability to convert distances for my workouts. This presentation will overview the need for such an application and discuss the the process I went through to create the application. At the end of the presentation I will demonstrate my application.
 
Proposal Title: BASEBALL RECRUITING DATABASE
Author: Dylan Matthews
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Alec Engebretson
Field of study: Information Science & Technology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: For my senior project, I created an application to store information about baseball recruits. The application was created on two different platforms: Web-Based and Mobile Based. My presentation will overview the requirements of the application and discuss the process I went through to develop the application on each platform. I will also demonstrate both applications.
 
Proposal Title: NETWORK DESIGN PROPOSAL
Author: Darion Ward
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Alec Engebretson
Field of study: Information Science & Technology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: For my senior project, I designed a network for an existing building. In this process I acted as a network architect and created a network proposal that could potentially be implemented by an organization. In order to complete the process a few steps were taken such as gaining an overview of various networking concepts and also using a framework known as RADIS. Students in the field of Information Science and Technology at Doane are quite familiar with this framework that is used to solve problems. This acronym stands for recognize, analyze, design, implement, and support. The problem was recognized when I proposed creating a network plan for a two-story building. Analyzing involved gathering requirements from those who work in the building. In the design phase I developed a plan for a local area network that met the requirements and presented the plan. The implementation and support phases, which are beyond the scope of this project would involve actually implementing the design and making any changes to the design if needed. In my presentation I will be presenting my experience in learning new concepts, gathering requirements, and the design of my proposal.
 
         
Proposal Title: WINIFRED MERILL
Author: Sonia Almodovar
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Winifred Merrill was the first women to receive a Ph.D in mathematics in 1886. After earning a B.A degree from Wellesley College in 1883 she was then allowed to study mathematics and astronomy at Columbia University. She then petitioned to received a Ph.D degree since she had successfully completed the required credits. She had to surpass many challenges and break many barriers in order for women to be able to receive a Ph.D in mathematics. Her tremendous courage has made her a Leader that everyone should learn about.
 
Proposal Title: C. VIVIAN STRINGER
Author: Kellie Carnes
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: I will be explaining a leader through leadership theories. My leader will be C. Vivian Stringer.
 
Proposal Title: COACH K AND HIS LEADERSHIP STYLE
Author: Nick Cepure
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Hi, my name is Nick Cepure. I am a senior information systems major with a minor in leadership studies and business administration. This poster presentation of mine will be about Coach K and his leadership styles he exhibit's on and off the court while he coaches men's basketball at Duke University. In this presentation I will look at the leadership styles that I have learned in the time I have been at Doane and connect those to Coach K. Over the time of this presentation you will learn about who Coach K is and why people think he is a great leader. You will get to see what I think of Coach K when it comes to leadership.
 
Proposal Title: MIA HAMM
Author: Sara Cushing
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Mariel Margaret Hamm, also known as Mia Hamm is the exceptional leader I have chosen. She demonstrates numerous leadership qualities that has influenced a wide range of individuals within society. Her leadership and dedication to helping others has expanded much further than the soccer field.
 
Proposal Title: AUNG SAN SUU KYI
Author: Madison Greif
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Aung San Suu Kyi is a Burmese social democratic stateswomen and president of Myanmar’s National League for Democracy party. In November of 2010, Aung San Suu Kyi was released from house arrest after spending more than 15 years detained by her government for leading protest and non-violent demonstrations against the Burmese dictatorship. In order to bring democracy to her home country, Suu Kyi gave up a life of freedom in India with her husband and two sons. Despite protests being brutally suppressed by the government for over 20 years, Suu Kyi and her followers eventually brought democracy to Myanmar. Suu Kyi’s next battle is running for president even though limitations have been implemented into the new constitution to specifically prevent her from becoming president.
 
Proposal Title: THE WOMEN EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW: EVA PERON
Author: Haylee Haller
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: My poster will be about Eva Peron. She was an Argentinian First Lady who had more power with her people than her husband. I will talk about her rise to power and how she kept it. I will talk about how to some she was a saint and others a sinner. What her leadership style was and how it affected the world. Lastly, I will talk about how her leadership is something to admire and why we need to be more aware of who Eva Peron is, what she did for her people, and how it was all possible. This is a very rough abstract.
 
Proposal Title: LEADERSHIP 401
Author: Kaelli Hedgpeth
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Kaelli Hedgpeth
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Leaders Everyone Should Know Project for Leadership 401. Research Dorothy Height and assess her leadership styles and what she did related to leadership. Present on why she is a leader everyone should know.
 
Proposal Title: LB 922- MULTICULTURALISM IN EDUCATION
Author: Cheyanna Kempel
Additional Authors: Hannah Dull
Faculty Sponsor: Linda Kalbach and Marilyn Johnson-Farr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: LB 922 was composed in 1993 and passed in 1994 by Jim Kubick and students from Norfolk High School with the help of Nebraska state senators. Through intensive interviews and thorough research, it was determined that the intention of the original law only encompassed race. Educators today are pushing for more. As future educators, we concluded that it would be beneficial to reevaluate the law and its inclusivity in order to determine if the law is effective to its full potential.
 
Proposal Title: LDR 401
Author: Tara McGinnis
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Will be presenting on a leader.
 
Proposal Title: SIR ALEXANDER FERGUSON
Author: Sean Ryan
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: I will be presenting on Sir Alex Ferguson in terms of his leadership style and how he in fact showed leadership throughout his life as a professional soccer player and coach. He was the man who brought the club of Manchester United to its present day glory. Not only did he transform the sport for a very long time but he has been a example of a leader who has made an impact through his understanding of economics and how motivational he was. Ferguson was able to propel great players to world class players. The poster is about bringing to light a leader who may not be a household name to everyone.
 
Proposal Title: PASSING THE 19TH AMENDMENT THROUGH THE EYES OF ALICE PAUL
Author: Kayleigh Schadwinkel
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: In the MindExpo poster exhibit, it will take the listener through the journey of Alice Paul and her struggles and major accomplishments in passing the 19th Amendment. Alice Paul is a dynamic humanist and political leader whose authentic style of leadership not only inspired the women around her as they campaigned and endured the hardships to obtain women’s suffrage, but how she united a divided nation of women and men to come together to support this amendment. Throughout this exhibit, it will showcase Alice Paul’s humble beginning, her shortcomings and successes while bringing awareness to the country’s lack of suffrage for women as well as highlight the benefits of having women apart of legislation and politics. Also, it will discuss the impact of historical events in American history, such as World War II, NAWSA, President Woodrow Wilson’s turning point to support the vote, and much more, had on influencing senators to pass the 19th Amendment. Little did Alice Paul know that her leadership, resilience and optimism to seek out change in legislation would eventually empowered an entire nation of women to fight for their right to vote and to be seen as equal to men.
 
Proposal Title: ANALYSIS OF THE LEADERSHIP STYLS AND TRAITS OF RICHARD WINTERS
Author: Nik Stevenson
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Leaders throughout history have had success using a variety of leadership styles and traits that they as individuals possess. Richard Winters, a World War II veteran from the United States military, was an exceptional leader. The trait approach to leadership is important in establishing how Major Winters emerged as a leader of Easy Company in the 101st Airborne Division and won over the men. Winters led his men through the scope of authentic leadership, leading to the unit’s success during the war. To better analyze Major Winters, the Relational Leadership Model can be used to show exactly how he was able to take a group of random men and band them together towards a common goal. The analysis of Major Richard Winters will show that his leadership capabilities was crucial in the strong performance of Easy Company during World War II. This analysis will provide evidence that the material learned through the Leadership minor can be applied to any individual in a leadership position to determine their ability and efficiency as a leader.
 
Proposal Title: NOT JUST A GAME
Author: Arik Todd
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Carrie Petr
Field of study: Leadership
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: This Mind Expo project is about Herb Brooks, who was the 1980 U.S. Olympic hockey team, which won the gold medal. More specifically this poster will look at Herb Brooks from a leadership perspective. It will also look at how Herb Brooks and his leadership styles impacted the United States during a very rough time; the Cold War. In 1980, The United States was in the heat of the Cold War with the Soviets, and beating them in hockey with a bunch of college kids takes quite a leader.
 
         

 


 

Mathematics

Proposal Title: MATHEMATICS BEHIND KENKEN PUZZLES
Author: Kayla Bamesberger
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Barbara Herzog
Field of study: Mathematics
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: A KenKen puzzle consists of a square grid divided into sections called cages that each contain an operation and a number. It is similar to Sudoku in that numbers may only appear in each column and row once, and the final solution is a Latin square. However in a KenKen puzzle each cage contains an operation and a number, which is the result obtained when the operation is applied to all numbers placed in the cage. KenKen puzzles have fascinated solvers for years and can add an arithmetic aspect to puzzles that Sudoku does not offer. My research focuses on the mathematics behind creating KenKen puzzles and some classroom applications.
 
Proposal Title: "DON'T BREAK THE ICE" THROUGH COMBINATORIAL GAME THEORY
Author: Amy Hung
Additional Authors: Austin Uden
Faculty Sponsor: Kristopher Williams
Field of study: Mathematics
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: The game “Don’t Break the Ice” is a classic children’s game that involves players taking turns hitting “ice” blocks out of a grid until a block containing a bear falls. Our research analyzed various versions of “Don’t Break the Ice” through Combinatorial Game Theory, specifically normal and misère play. Different winning strategies are presented, some applying to specific games and some generalized for all versions of the game._x000D_
 
Proposal Title: MATHEMATICAL PATTERNS IN FREE VERSE POETRY
Author: Elizabeth Woita
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Barbara Herzog
Field of study: Mathematics
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: In English, there are numerous types of poetry, some of which follow a predetermined mathematical patterns, like a haiku, and some of which have no rules. Free verse contemporary poetry does not follow any of these patterns and was the focus of my research. In my research I looked at Ted Kooser and Sherman Alexie’s poetry in order to determine if they had patterns to them. I focused my research specifically on the proportion of stressed and unstressed syllables.
 
         
Proposal Title: THE MORAL EVALUATION OF ACTIONS PERFORMED WITHIN DREAMS: A CATEGORY MISTAKE
Author: Marissa Glessman
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Patrick Monaghan
Field of study: Philosophy
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: There are two different views on the moral evaluation of human action. The Internalist would argue that an individual's actions would be morally evaluated based upon the individual's motives or reasons for acting. According to this view, an individual's actions are right to the extent that his or her motives are good ones. The Externalist would argue that actions would be morally evaluated based upon the consequences that they bring about. According to this view, an individual's actions are right to the extent that the consequences the action brings about are good ones.
Can the actions that are performed within dreams be morally evaluated? Perhaps, the solution to this problem could help to settle the dispute between the Internalist and the Externalist.
In this paper, I will argue that the Externalist's stance on the situation is correct by arguing that actions performed within a dream are the kinds of things that cannot be morally evaluated in the first place.
 
          

 


Physics

Proposal Title: TORQUE AND HORIZONTAL NOCK TRAVEL IN A COMPOUN BOW
Author: Grant Reckling
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Susan Enders
Field of study: Physics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: A compound bow is a simple machine that has spring loaded limbs with a string and cams/pulleys, which make it efficient. Bows have to have balanced forces when they are being shot, otherwise they will not be as accurate as they are capable of. The top pulley on a compound bow is called the idler on a single cam bow. It can be adjusted for cam lean to help balance the forces, especially the horizontal forces on the arrow when being released, along with the torque on the riser. If there are horizontal forces that are great it could cause stress on the arrow. The arrow consists of the point, shaft, fletching, and the nock which touches the string when shot. The stress could in turn either deflect the arrow sideways when being shot or it could break the arrow. Bows should be tuned and developed to reduce horizontal nock travel so that bows are more consistent. A compound bow is said to be a precise machine. I have found that the nock could travel more than ¾” horizontally when being shot. That is a large amount for supposedly being a precise machine. Horizontal nock travel should be to a minimum when shooting a bow. It should be either zero or as close to zero as possible. This makes a bow consistent. Instead of an archer having to deal with the torque on the riser when shooting the bow, they can just shoot bow consistently.
 
Proposal Title: STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF FRACTALS IN ARCHITECTURE
Author: Alex Rogge
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Susan Enders
Field of study: Physics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: Research began by identifying various fractal designs and transformed these into truss structures that can then undergo structural analysis, the fractals found were the Sierpinksi triangle, Koch snowflake, and Pythagoras tree. After performing the analysis it was decided that only the Sierpinski triangle design was to be used since analysis on the Koch snowflake and Pythagoras tree were nearly impossible. The analysis was able to determine where the Sierpinski triangle distributed the most force in its truss-like structure. The fractal was then made into a 3D model using the software SolidWorks and was produced by a 3D printer where it can be tested for collecting experimental data. The experimental data showed that after the first iteration of the Sierpinski triangle, the fractals held less weight and force with each iteration. So, experimentally the fractals hold less weight than the previous iterations, however theoretically the fractals should hold more. The factors that cause this difference between the experimental and theoretical data is from the shear force produced during the experiment that caused the fractals to bend along with the quality and resolution of the plastic used by the 3D printer.
 
Proposal Title: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPERATURE-CONTROLLED SAMPLE STAGE FOR FERROELECTRIC MATERIAL ANALYSIS
Author: Zachary Swanson
Additional Authors: Axel Enders
Faculty Sponsor:
Field of study: Physics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: The purpose of this collaborative project was to develop a sample stage for ferroelectric material analysis to be used under high vacuum conditions in the condensed matter physics laboratory of Dr. Axel Enders, of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Ferroelectric materials are materials with a suite of special properties, but the key property is that the electric polarization of the material can be reversed by an external electric field. Although there are tools for analyzing materials under high vacuum, this sample stage would be unique because it would be relatively small, transportable, and it would be temperature controlled to allow the materials’ electric properties to be studied with respect to temperature changes. A peltier element connected to a copper sample plate was used to heat and cool the samples. Peltier elements work by creating a thermal gradient between two ceramic plates by passing current through different type semi-conductive materials. Furthermore, the direction of the thermal gradient switches by changing the direction of current, making the peltier element an ideal component. Lastly, the design includes an electric feedthrough for electronic analysis tools, a thermocouple to monitor temperature, and one side-port was left for the vacuum pump. All design worked was completed in SolidWorks. Some parts were designed from scratch and others were modified from manufacturer provided drawings. A 3d printed model was created from the designs to study the functionality of the sample stage.
 
Proposal Title: WEAR BEHAVIOR OF BIOFILMS IN DEPENDENCE OF SURFACE STRUCTURE
Author: Kendall Weisshaar
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Susan Enders
Field of study: Physics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate how altering the topographic characteristics of a microscope slide effects the ability of biofilms to stay adhered to the surface. Three different surfaces were tested, a normal slide surface, one with scratches going down the length of the slide and one with scratches going both vertical and horizontal along the slide. The ForceBoard was used to take coefficient of friction measurements before and after the biofilm growth to compare the two results to see how well, or how ineffective the biofilm stayed attached to the surface.
 
Proposal Title: MEASURING MASS ACCUMULATION OF PA-01 USING A QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE
Author: Nick Youssef
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Nicholas N.S. Youssef
Field of study: Physics
Session Type: Poster
Abstract: The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) exploits piezoelectricity to examine mass changes on the surface of a thin quartz crystal wafer. The device can measure changes in mass on the nanogram scale. This makes it especially useful to track mass accumulation of biofilms as they grow over time. This project looks at how a QCM operates, its ideal operating conditions, and shows the growth in mass of PA-01 as a biofilm over time.
 
         
         
          
Proposal Title: GENDER ROLES AMONG HISPANIC COUPLES IN RURAL NEBRASKA: EXAMINING THE INFLUENCE OF MACHISMO AND MARIANISMO
Author: Kelly Mozena
Additional Authors: Jared List, Kari Gentzler
Faculty Sponsor: Jared List
Field of study: Sociology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: Traditionally, gender roles among Hispanic couples have been guided by the concepts of machismo, which stresses male independence, strength, and dominance, and marianismo, which emphasizes female dependence, femininity, and submission. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a mixed-methods study to investigate the degree to which machismo and marianismo influence the domestic division of labor among heterosexual, married, Hispanic couples, and to what extent their environment (a rural area in Nebraska with a high concentration of Hispanic Americans) may influence their conceptions of gender roles. Snowball sampling methods were used to recruit a sample of eight participants (four couples). Each participant was interviewed separately from his/her spouse in whichever language (English or Spanish) the participant desired. The first portion of the study was a quantitative sociodemographic survey, followed by a qualitative semi-structured in-depth interview. Results show that while participants were familiar with machismo, many were less familiar with the concept of marianismo. Additionally, while the couples tended to divide their domestic responsibilities according to traditional gender roles, there was evidence of more egalitarian roles, with some couples actively seeking to provide their children with egalitarian role models. Implications and directions for further research are also discussed.
 
Proposal Title: HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF NATIVE PEOPLES: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Author: Delta Wilson
Additional Authors:
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Bossard
Field of study: Sociology
Session Type: Oral
Abstract: While research on human trafficking in general has been growing, there remains a dearth of information on human trafficking among Native Americans. Reasons for this include: lack of funding, lack of transparent information, lack of permission, and difficulty collecting data. The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the current available information about human trafficking among Native Americans. This project consists of three phases: 1) identify current literature and resources in journal articles, organizations, and other sources, 2) summarize the literature and resources, and 3) identify gaps that can be filled by future research, while noting the challenges and opportunities in filling those gaps. First, I identify organizations and individuals who are contributing to the body of knowledge on human trafficking among Native Americans. Information sources include journal articles, news articles, and conference presentations and panels on this topic. I record specific characteristics about each piece of information, including: dates, authors, locations, funding sources, publishers, data sources, etc. I identify key findings in the literature as well as deficiencies where research could be furthered. I also identify methodologies present in the current literature which has proved successful in gathering data about human trafficking on Native American populations. This information will be helpful in guiding future research on human trafficking among Native Americans.
 
 

 

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